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      什么原因導致電纜絕緣被擊穿?

      發布時間:2021-03-22 來源:http://www.8477k.com/ 瀏覽量:

      在電線電纜行業,我們經常能聽到“絕緣擊穿”這個詞,且較多發生在電力電纜的使用上,那么,電力電纜絕緣擊穿是什么意思呢?電氣成套設備廠家電纜告訴您:
      In the wire and cable industry, we can often hear the word "insulation breakdown", and it occurs more in the use of power cable. So what does the meaning of insulation breakdown of power cable mean? The cable of the electrical complete equipment manufacturer tells you:
      首先要明白,放電是發生電力電纜絕緣擊穿的原因
      First, it should be understood that discharge is the reason for the insulation breakdown of power cable
      放電指的是在兩個有電位差的導體之間,當絕緣材料性能下降,兩個導體間產生了電子能量的遷移,比如高壓火線與地線間的打火就是放電,完全的放電是放電的瞬時有兩個電極間形成了完整的電弧通道。
      Discharge refers to the transfer of electronic energy between two conductors when the performance of insulation materials decreases. For example, the ignition between high voltage wire and ground wire is discharge. Complete discharge means that the complete arc channel is formed between two electrodes in the instantaneous discharge.
      除了以上所說的放電情況外,還有放電的特殊情況——局部放電
      In addition to the above mentioned discharge, there are also special discharge cases - partial discharge
      局部放電主要有兩種情況
      There are two main cases of partial discharge
      1.在兩個導體之間有絕緣,當絕緣材料內部有缺陷,如雜質、空隙、導體的尖 端等,會成絕緣內部電場歧變,引起在絕緣內部產生脈沖放電。
      1. there is insulation between two conductors. When there is defect in the insulation material, such as impurities, voids, tip of conductor, etc., the electric field will be differentiated inside the insulation, which will cause pulse discharge in the insulation.
      2.外部放電產生電暈也是局部放電的一種,在高電位與接地之間有空氣絕緣,當導體周圍的電場在某一點特別集中時,如導線毛刺,引起在空氣中產生脈沖放電,且沒有形成對地短路,形成電暈。
      2. corona generated by external discharge is also a kind of partial discharge. Air insulation is provided between high potential and grounding. When the electric field around the conductor is specially concentrated at a certain point, such as the burr of the conductor, pulse discharge is generated in the air, and no short circuit to ground is formed to form corona.
                         電氣成套設備
      局部放電的特征
      Characteristics of partial discharge
      局部放電也具有放電的基本特征,即有電子能量的遷移,由于放電能量較小,又有絕緣材料的阻擋,在兩個電極間不一定形成完整的電弧通道,此類通道一旦出現就會加劇局部放電,直到形成兩極絕貫通,就會發生短路放電故障。
      Partial discharge also has the basic characteristics of discharge, that is, the transfer of electronic energy. Because of the small discharge energy and the barrier of insulating materials, there is no complete arc channel between the two electrodes. Once such channels appear, the partial discharge will be intensified, and the short circuit discharge fault will occur until the two poles are completely connected.
      局部放電形成的原因
      The cause of partial discharge
      主絕緣內存在氣隙會引起局部放電。由于氣隙的相對介電常數遠小于電纜絕緣,在工頻電場作用下,氣隙要承受較大的電場強度,千萬局部放電,隨著氣隙的多次放電,氣隙通路不斷擴大,放電量逐漸增加,直至發生擊穿,造成電纜損壞。
      The air gap in the main insulation will cause partial discharge. Because the relative dielectric constant of air gap is far less than cable insulation, under the action of power frequency electric field, the air gap should bear a large electric field intensity. Tens of millions of partial discharge, with the multiple discharge of air gap, the air gap path is expanding, and the discharge amount gradually increases until breakdown occurs, which causes cable damage.
      主絕緣內存在雜質引起局部放電。雜質的擊穿強度比絕緣材料小的多,在電場作用下,雜質首先發生放電、炭化和氣化,生成氣隙,引起局部放電。
      The impurity in the main insulation causes partial discharge. The breakdown strength of impurities is much smaller than that of insulating materials. Under the action of electric field, the impurities first discharge, carbonize and gasify, and generate air gap, which leads to partial discharge.
      導體的尖 端、毛刺會引起局部放電。由于尖 端會使電場強度增加,尖 端周圍的絕緣材料先發生放電,進而發展成擊穿,這就是我們常說的尖 端效應。
      The tip and burr of conductor can cause partial discharge. Because the tip increases the electric field strength, the insulation around the tip first discharges and then develops into breakdown, which is what we often call the tip effect.
      以上就是引起電力電纜絕緣擊穿的一些因素,在電纜的敷設使用中,一定要多加注意,一旦發現絕緣擊穿,可以參考以上的一些因素盡早找出問題所在。
      Above are some factors that cause insulation breakdown of power cable. In the laying and use of cables, more attention should be paid to. If insulation breakdown is found, we can refer to the above factors to find out the problem as soon as possible.
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